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Hate crime recording – Data collection practice across the European Union.

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➡ Across the European Union, people face hatred because of their skin colour, ethnicity, religion, gender or sexuality.

In response, the European Union and its Member States have introduced laws against hate crime and support services for victims.

But these will only fulfil their potential :

  • if victims report hate-motivated harassment and violence to the police,
  • and if police officers record such incidents as hate crimes.

If hate crimes remain unidentified or unrecorded, they remain uninvestigated, unprosecuted, uncounted and, ultimately, invisible.

➡ This Report of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights provides rich and detailed information on hate crime recording and data collection systems across the European Union, including any systemic cooperation with civil society.

Learn more : FRA/Publication/2018/Hate Crime Recording and data collection

Related European Union Charter Articles : Article 21 (non-discrimination). 

Policing Hate Crime against LGBTIQ persons : Training for a Professional Police Response.

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Policing Hate Crime against LGBTIQ persons : Training for a Professional Police Response.

Especially, Module Five helps participants to understand the work of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and how the Police can best work with them to improve responses to victims.

■ The police are at the frontline of the criminal justice system and the first point of contact for many victims of hate crime. Without the essential skills to identify and investigate hate crimes against LGBTIQ persons, the police cannot ensure justice and protection for victims, gain the confidence of communities or contribute to the fair and transparent application of national hate crime laws.

The Council of Europe has long worked to raise awareness of targeted violence including racist, religious, gender based, homophobic and transphobic crime. Key Council of Europe resolutions and recommendations by the Committee of Ministers, as well as the Parliamentary Assembly, recognise the speci c harm and impact of discrimination and crimes against LGBTIQ persons, as well as the importance of supporting victims, cooperat- ing with civil society and training law enforcement and other criminal justice practitioners. Case law of the European Court of Human Rights is unequivocal about the importance of ‘unmasking’ hate motivation and homophobic motivation and warns of the consequences of failing to do so: “prejudice-motivated crimes would unavoidably be treated on an equal footing with ordinary cases without such overtones, and the resultant indi erence would be tantamount to o cial acquiescence to or even connivance with hate crimes.”

■ This manual is designed for police trainers, investigators, managers, hate crime o cers and frontline police o cers working in countries across the Council of Europe region. Its purpose is to provide assistance, information and the appropriate tools for conducting trainings on hate crime against LGBTIQ persons. It builds on Council of Europe standards, especially on the European Convention on Human Rights and the relevant case law from the European Court of Human Rights, as well as other international human rights standards and already existing training materials for law enforcement o cials.

■ This manual is based on a human rights approach and informed by expert input. Above all it is victim and community-focused, in recognition that their con dence in law enforcement and cooperation is key to the success of investigations of these crimes.

■ Police training is only one element in a comprehensive approach to tackling hate crime. Police recording systems should allow all aspects of hate crime against LGBTIQ persons to be recorded, and good investigative practice should be supported by o cial protocols and guidelines. As a key partner of the police, the prosecution service should also undergo training so that successful and fair hate crime prosecutions can be prepared and brought. Finally, political leadership that recognises the specic harm caused by hate crimes against LGBTIQ persons and that commits itself to resourcing the full implementation of this training must also be in place.

■ This manual builds on the standards of the Council of Europe on combating hate crime and discrimination, as well as on the work and expertise of the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Unit in assisting member states with the implementation of e ective policies, legislation and practical measures to identify, investigate and prosecute hate crime against LGBTIQ persons and protecting the victims of such crimes.

Manual of the Council of Europe – Policing Hate Crime against LGBTIQ persons : Training for a Professionnel Police Réponse

HAND 4 BURMA e. V – An N.G.O. to support the Rohingya minority.

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The Rohingya minority is one of the most persecuted minorities in the world.

Myanmar’s treatment of the Rohingya community is an unmistakable and serious breach of international Human Rights Laws. Successive Burmese military governments have since early 1970s viewed the Rohingya Muslim minority, who live on their ancestral borderlands between the Islamic country of Bangladesh and Buddhist Myanmar, as “a threat to Myanmar’s national security and local Buddhist culture”.

The Rohingya persecution by the Myanmar military began in 1978 under the pretext of a crackdown on the illegal Bengali immigration into Western Myanmar from the then newly independent Bangladesh. The military used the Rohingya as a proxy population against the extremely nationalistic and anti-Myanmar Rakhine people, who resent Myanmar rule as a colonial occupation of their once sovereign nation.

The United Nations has repeatedly referred to human rights violations in the region, but the government of State Councilor Aung San Suu Kyi systematically refutes these reports.

On the ground, the soldiers and policemen, who are deployed in western Burma, obey the army chief, not the Aung San Suu Kyi government.


Hand 4 Burma e. V is registered under German court n° VR 5730. Hand 4 Burma e. V has been helping the poor and needy in Bangladesh & Myanmar unregistered refugee camps since 2016 after Genocide begun in Arakan State in Myanmar. Hand 4 Burma e. V is an N.G.O. registered in GERMANY and is a professional group comprised of the Rohingya community. Its aim is to lead the path for effective change in the Rakhine state of Myanmar and Rohingya diaspora, where persons belonging to the Rohingya community are being persecuted daily.

Access to international aid workers and journalists is severely restricted in this area.

Hand 4 Burma e.V is actively seeking partnerships and associations with other development organisations for the following purposes :

  • Technical assistance and training support ;
  • Humanitarian aid ;
  • Community based organizations for self help initiatives ;
  • Community service organizations for identifying working opportunities ;
  • Emergency healthcare through mobile clinics, food and water and medicine.

HAND 4 BURMA e. V has become a Member and a Partner of the European Observatory for Non-Discrimination and Fundamental Rights.


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Yazda – An International Yazidi Organization to support the Yazidi ethno-religious minority group.

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YAZDA – An International Yazidi Organization

Yazda Organization is a US-based, 501 (c) (3) non-profit organization, established to support the Yazidi ethno-religious minority group in the United States and the Yazidi homeland in northern Iraq and northeastern Syria. Yazda’s mission is to support the Yazidi community in the aftermath of the August 2014 genocide, committed by the so-called “Islamic State”, that resulted in the death of three to five thousand civilians ; abduction of five to seven thousand, mostly woman and children; and the displacement of 400,000 people from the Yazidi homelands in Sinjar, the Nineveh plain, and Syria.

OENDDF’s social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) : “Yazidi genocide is a reality. Yazda organisation is now established to prevent future genocides”.

Yazda Organisation has become a partner and a Member of the The European Observatory for Non-Discrimination and Fundamental Rights.


Yazda Organisation is now established to prevent future genocides.

Sources : the recognition of the Yazidi Genocide – Yazda Organisation (https://www.yazda.org/the-recognition-of-the-yazidi-genocide/)

“The Yazidi people are undergoing a genocide. 85% of the Yazidi population is displaced and over 3,000 women and children remain the captives of ISIS, continually raped and forced to work as slaves.

The international community has produced a definition of genocide, which has been used previously in International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and former Yugoslavia (i.e., there is a precedent, and the International Criminal Court must recognize the horrors taking place in Iraq and take immediate action):

1) The mental element, meaning the “intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such”, and

2) The physical element which includes five acts described in sections a, b, c, d and e. A crime must include both elements to be called “genocide.”
Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Article III: The following acts shall be punishable:

(a) Genocide;
(b) Conspiracy to commit genocide;
(c) Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;
(d) Attempt to commit genocide;
(e) Complicity in genocide.
Yazidis have been treated as lesser citizens in Iraq, adding to their difficulties in obtaining legal assistance. Historically, there have been misunderstandings regarding the Yazidi religion, which celebrates God and seven angels. One of these angels has a name which falls close to the devil in Islam. Thus the ethno-religious minority group, the Yazidi, have been massacred dozens of times over the past millennium. Yet today they are being captured and slaughtered by a known and recognized terrorist group, one opposed globally, while the international community makes no strides to assist them.
Multiple United Nations reports have classified ISIS’ attacks on the Yazidi people as genocide, and recognize it as an ongoing problem.

We have seen such ethnic “cleansings” before. The Jewish people, historically persecuted time and again, were killed by the millions in the Holocaust before the international community began to provide assistance. Between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Tutsi were killed in Rwanda in a matter of months. The Yazidi population is already low: estimated at a mere 700,000.

The Yazidi men are being slaughtered, the women and children captured and enslaved. The women and girls are subject to rape (including girls as young as 6, and if the rape is followed by pregnancy, forcible abortions as well), torture, and forced religious conversion. The captured boys were also forcibly converted and indoctrinated with the extremist views of ISIS to serve as soldiers. ISIS is killing both the people and the Yazidi culture.

Seniors members of Yazda and human rights advocates have been pleading the case of the Yazidi people, but thus far to little avail. Most recently, Nadia Murad, herself a survivor of ISIS enslavement, participated in an event in Australia to address the crimes ISIS has committed against minorities in Syria and Iraq and attempts to have the ISIS survivors relocated to Australia.

Increased international attention, both on the slaughter of the Yazidi and the plight of the remaining survivors (current slaves, escaped slaves, and relocated refugees), is a step towards holding ISIS accountable for their heinous and inhumane actions. While last year the UN was dragging its feet on recognizing this crisis as a genocide, based on the definitions accepted in the past courts and ongoing situation, it is clear what is happening in Iraq.

Yet it is clear that the ongoing crisis in Iraq and Syria involving the systemic decimation of the Yazidi people falls under the jurisdiction of the ICC and that ISIS is in the process of committing genocide against them.

ISIS has stated outright that they aim to eliminate the Yazidi population. Those who are captured are forced to convert, those who will not convert are killed. By destroying the homes and communities as well, surviving Yazidi can never return to their homes.

Without help from the international community, the Yazidi people may never recover. Not only do they need aid in defense from ISIS attacks, but also resources. The majority of these people have been relocated to refugee camps (and in many of these are still targets of violence) without adequate supplies. The women and children who have escaped the slavery of ISIS need counseling and support to begin to come to terms with the awful events that have befallen them.

For those who have already been killed in ISIS attacks, Yazda is attempting to document the bodies remaining in mass graves to provide closure to families. Those who still live in Iraq and in unsafe refugee camps need resettlement options, but the ICC is refusing to hear these cases for a minimum of six years. Six more years living under the constant threat of extermination in Iraq and Kurdistan, or without adequate food and shelter in a refugee camp. This is unacceptable.

Yazda further seeks assistance once the Yazidi people have been liberated from Iraq. Not only do the victims of ISIS deserve justice, but there need be new international measures that prevent such genocide from once again befalling the Yazidi.

For over a year, Yazda has been struggling to force recognition of the genocide beyond merest lip service to action. It is the most basic, humanitarian responsibility of the international community to provide assistance. The Yazidi people are dying. They need help”.


European campaign against hate crime and for access to justice.

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Objective : To carry out a european campaign against hate crime and for access to justice for all. 

Location of the action : European Union. 

Means and resources deployed :

During the year 2016 : Our Association has started a European campaign against hate crime and for access to justice, with posters recalling the importance of the European Charter for Fundamental Rights in the European Union. 

Posters are translated into English, French, Turkish and Dutch language.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights :  Violence and offences motivated by racism, xenophobia, religious intolerance, or by bias against a person’s disability, sexual orientation or gender identity are all examples of hate crime” (learn more : http://fra.europa.eu/en/theme/hate-crime).


Whether you are a disabled person, a migrant, a homeless person or someone living in temporary accommodation suffering from social exclusion, a person practising a religion, a person with a sexual or gender personal orientation, whether you are a member of an ethnic minority or a national minority of the European Union (Roma, Romanians, Turks, Surinamese, Albanians, Serbs, Bosnians, Somalians, Russians, etc.):


Our Association, the EUROPEAN OBSERVATORY FOR NON-DISCRIMINATION AND FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS works to guarantee non-discrimination and fundamental rights, with the aim of promoting these and making everyone aware of them.

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union guarantees the right to effective legal redress and the right to access an independent and impartial court within a reasonable period of time, including the entitlement to legal aid for those who do not possess the necessary resources.

Article 21 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union moreover states that: “1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited”.

Article 22 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union also states that: “The Union shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity”.


European campaign in english language


European campaign in french language


European campaign in dutch language


European campaign in turkish language



Hate Crime

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Our Association collects good practices to improve the reporting and the recording of Hate Crime, or serious incidents related to hate crime or hate speech, especially against refugees, asylum seekers and migrants, or against persons with disabilities, or serious incidents related to islamophobia, antisemitism or christianophobia in the Member States of the European Union.

The cooperation between Associations and NGOs can be highly useful.

If you are an Association or a NGO, and if you have an experience or actions to share, to fight against this phenomenon in the European Union, especially by crime prevention, you can send us an e-mail.

Extract :

“Violence and offences motivated by racism, xenophobia, religious intolerance, or by bias against a person’s disability, sexual orientation or gender identity are all examples of hate crime.

These crimes can affect anyone in society. But whoever the victim is, such offences harm not only the individual targeted but also strike at the heart of EU commitments to democracy and the fundamental rights of equality and non-discrimination. 

To combat hate crime, the EU and its Member States need to make these crimes more visible and hold perpetrators to account. Numerous rulings by the European Court of Human Rights oblige countries to ‘unmask’ the bias motivation behind criminal offences.

Efforts to form targeted policies for combating hate crime are hampered by under-recording, ie the fact that few EU Member States collect comprehensive data on such offences. In addition, a lack of trust in the law enforcement and criminal justice systems means that the majority of hate crime victims do not report their experiences, leading to under-reporting. FRA’s work documents both of these gaps in data collection, as well as the extent of prejudice against groups such as Roma, LGBT, Muslims, and migrant communities. At the same time, it makes recommendations on how the situation could be improved.

Article 1 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights guarantees the right to human dignity, while Article 10 stipulates the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Article 21 prohibits discrimination based on any ground, including sex, ethnic origin, religion, sexual orientation or disability”.

Learn more : European Union Agency for fundamental rights (FRA) : http://fra.europa.eu/en/theme/hate-crime.